Online Visa

You can now apply for an Online Visa to visit the United Republic of Tanzania (both Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar).

You are required to fill in the online form, make payment, and submit your application online. Your form will be internally reviewed and processed.

Applicants will be notified through their e-mails whether their applications have been accepted or rejected. They may also TRACK their application statuses through the online system. Applicants may as well be required to visit the nearest Tanzanian Embassies or Consular Offices for interviews.

For online application, copy the link below:


Fact Sheet

Tanzania is country so wealthy that it would practically take years to document all the resources. Not only is the country proud to bear witness to the highest and largest free standing mountain in the world but also to the rich and diverse wildlife concentrations, mineral and other resources available. If Africa’s tourism opportunities were to be summarized by one single country that country would be Tanzania.

Population:  Tanzania has a population of around 47.6 million (UN, 2012). Native Africans constitute 99% of the population

Climate: Tanzania has a tropical climate along the coast but it gets temperate in the highlands.
April & Mid – May = Long rains (Green Season)
June – Sept = Cool season
Nov – Dec = Short Rains
October – March = Hottest season

The range of Temperatures in Tanzania is fairly limited and always hot, running from 25 to 30 degrees C on the coast while the rest of the country apart from the highlands run from 22 to 27 degrees C.

Time: GMT + 3 hrs

Electricity: 240 Volts AC, 50 – 60 Hz

Language: Kiswahili & English

Area: 945,087 sq km (364,900 sq miles)

Life expectancy: 58 years (men), 60 years (women) (UN)

Monetary Unit: 1 Tanzanian shilling = 100 cents

Main exports: Gold, sisal, cloves, coffee, cotton, cashew nuts, minerals, tobacco

GNI per capita: US $540 (World Bank, 2011)

Internet domain: .tz

International dialling code: +255

Currency: Tanzania Shillings; however you are advised to carry American Dollars. Money changers do accept major convertible currencies including the EURO and the Japanese Yen. Travellers Cheques may be acceptable in some places, but not in the remote countryside, Major Credit Cards may also be acceptable in some large Hotels, however it is advisable to carry Cash US Dollars, which you will change on arrival..

System of government: Tanzania is a multiparty democratic republic.

Capital: Dodoma, with a population of around 325,000, is the official capital while

Dar-es-Salaam, with a population of nearly 4 million, serves as the administrative capital of the country.

What to Take on Safari

There is no real need (unless you specifically want to) to go out and buy any special clothes for your safari experience – most people have something in their wardrobe that will be fine!

Cotton clothing(preferably in neutral colours) is recommended, but do try and keep whites to a minimum, as white can attract bugs at night.  Bright coloured clothing should be avoided if possible.  Shorts are ideal for walks and the warm midday periods.  Long trousers can be worn at night to protect from mosquito bites. Dinner dress in the evening is also very casual.

A lot of the lodges will offer a laundry service, but if this is not included in your rate, then it will be priced on a ‘per item’ basis, which can become quite expensive if you decide to put all your dirty laundry in to be cleaned!

Comfortable walking shoes, trainers or hiking boots are advisable if you want to go on a bush walk - otherwise sandals are ideal to wear at meal times and around the lodge area.

In addition, during the rainy months, a waterproof jacket is of course a good idea.  If you are visiting during the Southern Hemisphere summer months (so from March to May) a warm sweater is useful for the cooler morning and evening temperatures when out on game drives - you also have the ‘wind chill’ factor of being on a moving vehicle.

During the Southern Hemisphere winter months (so between June and September), you will certainly need several warm layers for your game drives, including a hat, scarf and gloves, as it can be extremely cold when the sun goes down in the evenings, and when you first set off on the morning game drive.  It is always better to have too many layers for warmth than not enough!

Other Essentials
A strong sun block, a sun hat, sunglasses and lip balm are a good idea to have with you when out on game drives in the sun.

Also, make sure you have your camera, binoculars and spare camera batteries for the game drives too.  If you have a video camera, it may be a good idea to take a spare battery for this as well.

An insect repellent is necessary, especially in the evenings.  Most lodges do supply repellent for guests to use, but just in case it would be worth taking this with you.

Of course, if you are going on safari in a malarial area, don’t forget your malaria tablets!  You will need to consult your doctor at least 6-8 weeks prior to travel to see what course of malaria tablets they recommend, and when you should commence the course. 

Luggage Restrictions
If you are getting to your safari destination by a charter flight, do please check what the baggage weight allowance is before you arrive to check in.  For most charter flights, the limit is 15 kg, and most airlines do require your luggage to be in soft bags (to enable the pilot to easily stow the luggage in what is sometimes a small hold in the plane).

Self-Drive Safaris
In addition, a good field guide book to the animals of the region is an excellent item to have in the car with you, along with plenty of water and other refreshments. 

Wildlife of Tanzania

The wildlife of Tanzania refers to the fauna of Tanzania. Tanzania contains some 20 percent of the species of Africa’s large mammal population, found across its reserves, conservation areas, marine parks, and 17 national parks, spread over an area of more than 42,000 square kilometres (16,000 sq mi) and forming approximately 38 percent of the country's territory.

Wildlife resources of Tanzania are described as “without parallel in Africa” and “the prime game viewing country”. Serengeti National Park, the country’s second largest national park area at 14,763 square kilometres (5,700 sq mi), is located in northern Tanzania and is famous for its extensive migratory herds of wildebeests and zebra while also having the reputation as one of the great natural wonders of the world. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area, established in 1959, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and inhabited by the Maasai people. Its Ngorongoro Crater is the largest intact caldera in the world.

The national parks are also part of the wetlands of Tanzania. The wild animals tend to be closer to the wetlands, particularly the water loving species such as the hippopotamus, waterbuck, common warthog, elephant, crocodile, sitatunga as well as water birds such as flamingoes and ducks.

Since the colonial era, wildlife conservation in Tanzania has been the prerogative of the government. Under this structure, the use of wildlife resources by local communities had always been restrictive, causing increased rural poverty and poaching. In recent years, the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) has initiated corrective actions to involve the local community in conservation efforts, which is aimed at contribution to local economies by way of equitable benefits sharing.

Arusha Manifesto


Best Time to Visit Tanzania

The best wildlife viewing months in Tanzania are during the dry season from late June to October. The best chance of seeing the wildebeest migration in the Serengeti is during June and July and the time to see the wildebeest calving is late January to February. The Southern and Western Circuit Parks are best visited during the dry-season (June to October), unlike the more popular Northern Circuit Parks that can be visited year-round. Tarangire is the only exception, since its wildlife viewing is considerably better in the dry-season as well.

Quick facts

Best time to go:

June to October (All parks), June-July and January-February (Serengeti for the wildebeest migration & calving)

High Season:

July to March (northern circuit parks; they get crowded), July to October (southern and western circuit parks; they don't really get crowded any time of the year)

Low Season:

April and May (northern circuit parks still get quite a few visitors unlike the southern and western circuit parks, where many lodges close down)

Best Weather:

June to October (Little to no rainfall)

Worst Weather:

March and April (Peak of wet season)

June to October - Dry Season

  • June and July are the best months to see the wildebeest migration.
  • Animals are easier to spot since they concentrate around waterholes and rivers and there is less vegetation.
  • There are fewer mosquitoes because there is little to no rain. Skies are clear and most days are sunny.
  • Even though most tourists visit during the dry season, the parks still don't feel crowded, except for the Seronera area in the Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Crater. 
  • Mornings and nights get cold. It's recommended to bring warm clothing for morning game drives in open vehicles during the months of June, July and August.

November to May - Wet Season

  • Late January to February is the time to see the calving in the southern Serengeti. This is an excellent time to see predator action.
  • The scenery is green and beautiful. It's low season, meaning lower rates and less crowded parks.
  • Although wildlife is easier to spot in the dry season, you'll still see plenty and most northern circuit parks offer good year-round game viewing.
  • Migratory birds are present and birdwatching is at its best.
  • Except for March, April and May, rains are mostly short afternoon showers and seldom have a negative impact on your trip. 
  • March to May is the peak of the wet season.
  • Most big wildlife has migrated out of Tarangire NP and game viewing in Katavi, Selous and Ruaha is clearly better during the dry season.

Best time to go to Tanzania by major park
The Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Crater offer good wildlife viewing throughout the year. June and July are the best months for seeing the migration and February is the best month for the wildebeest calving. The dry months offer good game viewing throughout Tanzania. Tarangire and the southern and western circuit parks (including Katavi, Selous and Ruaha) are best visited in the dry season, from June to October.

Do I require a visa?
Visas are required to enter Tanzania as of other East African Countries – Kenya and Uganda. They can either be obtained in advance through the various Embassies/High Commissions abroad, Consulates or at the airports or other ports/borders of entry.
The process is fast and easy and all one requires to have is a valid passport (at least six months). 

Where and how can I apply? – see Tanzania VISA section

Airport and Arrival Information;
Three International Airports, Dar-es-Salaam, now know as “Julias Nyerere International Airport – JKIA” and “Kilimanjaro International Airport – KIA” and Zanzibar International Airport. See flights coming to Tanzania and Zanzibar – see flights coming to Tanzania 

To begin safaris in Northern Tanzania, most visitors are advised to book with Airlines whose Arrivals & Departures are at KILIMANJARO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (KIA) which is 45 minutes drive from Arusha town. See International Airlines such as AIR TANZANIA, KLM Royal Dutch with daily Flights out of Amsterdam into Kilimanjaro and Dar es Salaam, GULF AIR, KENYA AIRWAYS, ETHIOPIAN AIRLINES and Emirates. It is also possible to get flights arriving to Nairobi (Kenya) from where you can make arrangements to transfer to near city of Arusha.

Ferries: Boat and Ferries to Zanzibar and Mafia, see ferries to Zanzibar

Immunizations / Vaccination:

What medical precautions should we take?
Vaccination requirements change from time to time. We suggest you consult your local doctor or health department for information on the latest health precautions. Currently, shots against Yellow fever and cholera are recommended but not mandatory. As a precaution we usually advise anti-malarial drugs to be taken before, during and after your visit to East Africa. Also, if you are on prescription medication, please ensure you have an adequate supply to last the duration of your stay and a copy of your prescription(s). 

Malaria: your risk of malaria may be high in all countries in East Africa, including cities. See your health care provider for a prescription ant-malarial drug for details concerning risk and preventive medications.

What I should know for Safari? Everyone agrees that there is substantial planning required by those considering a safari in Africa. 

How far in advance should I book my safari?
It is better to book as far in advance as possible to ensure availability at the time you wish to travel, especially during the high/peak seasons – June to Oct and Christmas/New Year season.

What should I take on safari? (Should be used as a guide only)
As you will want to capture as much as possible of this amazing tour, don’t forget a camera, camcorder with lots of films, tapes, and replacement batteries for all these. A torch light would come in very handy.
Sunglasses, hat, sun lotion, lip-balm, insect repellents and your own toiletry requirements, small first-aid kit, a spare pair of glasses or lenses if you are using one.
Don’t forget a swimming costume and you might want to include a good book for the relaxing hours. Sleeping-bags and towels if you are planning for camping safaris must be included.

What should I take for mountain climbing? (Should be used as a guide only)
Sunglasses/Snow goggles, Rucksack & day pack, 3-4 season sleeping-bag, Insulation pad, Balaclava or woolen hat, Long sleeved shirt, Several pairs of socks, Gloves, Waterproof trousers & jacket, Warm sweaters, Anorak/raincoat, Gaiters, Water-bottle, Wooden walking stick, Hiking boots, Pair of light walking shoes, Warm scarf, Toiletry requirements, Flashlight with batteries, Sun protection cream, Small first aid kit, Lip salve, A whistle and some plastic bags.

Baggage Limit: 1 bag 15kgs maximum. It is advisable to have your own insurance covering, travel, medical, baggage and personal injury.
Persons undergoing medical treatment should obtain approval from their doctor prior to booking the trek. The trek is taken at the clients own risk.

What kind of food do I expect during the trip?
The quality and variety of food available on safari will be a pleasant surprise for our clients. Most lodges serve meals in buffet-style. The food is prepared according to the western-tastes, and includes some local cuisine too. If a camping safari is chosen, fresh meat and produce is prepared by the expert chefs accompanying the clients to the highest standards.

Special dietary requirements such as vegetarian or diabetic meals can be easily arranged with prior notice. A vegetarian or vegan may wish to bring along some alternative protein sources. Persons with multiple food allergies, it is advisable to bring along supplemental snacks. Please notify us of any possible dietary restrictions along with booking confirmation

Is drinking water safe?
In some places tap water is safe, but generally, it is not advisable to drink or brush your teeth with tap water. Bottled water is available everywhere and in almost all Lodges and Hotels and all super markets. On treks and safaris, it is better to carry sufficient bottled water.

What Type of Clothes to take? :
For safaris, especially in Northern Tanzania (Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Lake Manyara, Tarangire and Arusha), during the day, light clothing is recommended with sturdy shoes and canvas hats. During the night in areas like Arusha and the Ngorongoro Highlands; where the altitude is between 1500 – 2500 Metres; a cardigan or pullover may be essential. In the same pack, remember your sun cream, lotions, sun glasses, a pair of binoculars, and a camera with rolls of film.

What would be the accommodations like?
Wide range of accommodations is available to suit your budget, lodges, hotels, tented camps, permanent camps to name a few. Most hotels are a nice blend of luxury, ambience, offering picturesque views. Once an inquiry is submitted, we provide you with a detailed list of accommodations available to suit your requirements.

Advise regarding photography?
For wildlife photography, a 200 mm zoom lens is the smallest that you should use, A 300-400 zoom is preferable. For bird-watchers, a 500mm or larger is necessary, and a wide-angle lens would be ideal for scenic shots. Bring extra camera and flash batteries and plenty of film – you may find these quite expensive and difficult to obtain locally.

Shopping Around: Locally made products are widely sold at reasonable prices. Ask your local Guide for the best offer to buy yourself or your friend items like; Batiks and Tingatinga paintings, Ebony carvings such as cutlery, bracelets, furniture and sculptures. Others include Maasai belts, rings and necklaces made of colourful beads, Khanga for women’s wrap around and Jewels to include Tanzania’s special Mineral – Tanzanite.

Do I require Travel Insurance?
We strongly recommend that you take out all of the necessary Travel Insurance before commencing on your journey.

What is the best time to visit Tanzania?
Climate in Tanzania is always wonderful, though you might have to avoid rains from Mid April to end of May to climb Kilimanjaro; however the following prediction is based on the movement of animals. It is the best time for game viewing. 

Northern Tanzania
all year round except April and May.

Southern Tanzania
June through October

Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia
June through October; December through March

National Park & Game Reserve Fees as of 21 November 2010
Tanzania Parks and Game Reserves Fees and Regulations

Were are Tanzania Tourism Board Information Offices Located?

Dar-es-Salaam (Main Office)

Dar-es-Salaam (Eastern Zone Office)

Tanzania Tourist Board,
IPS Building, 3rd Floor
P.O. Box 2485, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
General (255) 022 211 1244/5
Marketing (255) 022 211 1345
Tourism (255) 022 212 8472
Mobile (255) 0788 420 050
Fax (255) 022 211 6420

Tanzania Tourist Board,
Tourist Information Centre
Samora Avenue Road
Matisalamat  Building
P.O. Box 2485, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Tel.: (255) 022 213 1555
Fax: (255) 022 211 642


Arusha (Northern Zone Office)

Mwanza (Lake Zone Office)

Tanzania Tourist Board, Arusha
Tourist Information Centre
47E Boma Road
P.O. Box 2348, Arusha, Tanzania.
Tel.: (255) 027 250 3842 / 3
Fax: (255) 027 254 8628

Tanzania Tourist Board, Mwanza
Tourist Information Centre
Posta Road, New Mwanza Hotel, Ground Floor
P.O Box 2175, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Tel:  (255) 737 199 806
Tel:  (255) 28 250 0818

Iringa (Southern Zone Office)


Tanzania Tourist Board and Tanzania National Park Tourist Information Office
Pawaga Road Iringa
P. O Box 1500, Iringa, Tanzania.
Tel: (255) 0787 113 868
Mob: (255) 0763 858 246


Filming in Tanzania?
Filming permit in Tanzania, please write and aquire information and licences from Tanzania Tourist Board [address above] or email to Managing Director, TTB

Guidelines on Tourism Licenses and Forms – TALA
The guidelines for tourism licenses contained in this booklet issued by the Tourism Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism will very much assist tourism business operators in the country.

I anticipate that all those engaged in the tourism business will be made aware of these regulations and that it will receive enduring support from all the tourism operators.

With that they shall abide to all other Laws and Regulations set by the Government to operate in this business.

Visa Requirements

Foreigners seeking to enter the United Republic of Tanzania should be in the possession of valid passports or any other travel document. The passport or any other travel document is to be presented to the Immigration Control Officer at any entry point, such as Border station, Airport or Harbour. The travel document must be presented along with one of the following:

1. Entry Requirements
Foreigners seeking to enter the United Republic of Tanzania should be in the possession of valid passports or any other travel document. The passport or any other travel document is to be presented to the Immigration Control Officer at any entry point, such as Border station, Airport or Harbour. The travel document must be presented along with one of the following:

  • A valid visa or
  • A residence permit or
  • A pass

N.B: A visitor must also present an onward or return ticket together with proof that he/she has sufficient funds to support himself or herself while in Tanzania.

2. Visas 

  • A visa is a permission granted to a foreigner who intends to enter into Tanzania for business, holiday, studies or conduct research or any other approved activities.
  • Visas should be obtained at Tanzania Embassies/High Commissions abroad or at the entry point.
  • After entering the country, a visitor with a visa may then obtain from the Immigration Control Officer, a pass or any other authority to stay in the country.

3. Who Requires a Visa?

  • All foreigners from Non-Commonwealth Countries are required to have a valid visa unless their countries have a visa abolition agreement with Tanzania.
  • Citizens of Commonwealth countries are not required to obtain visa, unless they are citizens of the United Kingdom, Canada, Nigeria, India, Pakistan or The Republic of South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. However, the list may change from time to time.

4. Types of Visas
There are five(5) types of visas valid for entry into Tanzania:

i. Ordinary Visa
An Ordinary Visa is issued at any Tanzania Mission abroad or at any official entry point into Tanzania boarder.

ii. Carrying on Temporary Assignment (CTA)
CTA is issued to prospective visitors who intend to visit Tanzania for purposes of making feasibility studies, establishing professional and business contacts, and making arrangements for investments during the start-up period. The validity of this visa is two months. This type of visa is issued at the entry point.

iii. Multiple entry Visa
Foreigners who, because of the nature of their business or investments, need to make frequent visits to the United Republic of Tanzania may be issued with Multiple- entry visa. The validity ranges from (3) months to one year.

Applications for multiple-entry visa are usually submitted to the Director of Immigration services by local contacts on behalf of the applicant

iv. Referred Visa
A referred visa requires a permission of the Director of Immigration Services or the assistant Director of Immigration Services in Zanzibar. This type of a visa is required for the nationals of the following countries: Lebanon, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Somalia, Afghanistan, Senegal, Mali, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Ethiopia, Syria, Egypt, Yemen, Morocco, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Sri lanka, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Niger, Liberia and for refugees, stateless people and any other nationalities as may be specified from time to time by the authorities. Persons in need of this type of visa may make enquiries at any Tanzania Mission abroad.

v. Transit Visa
A Transit Visa is a permission to pass through Tanzania from one entry point to the exit point. It is for the people whose purpose of their entry into Tanzania is simply to pass through to the other destination abroad without visiting. This type of a visa is only issued to persons with onward tickets, sufficient funds for transit, and an entry visa to the country of destination or any proof that prior arrangements have been made that satisfy this requirement. There is no special clearance for transit visa, except for those specified in paragraph 4.4 above.

5. Visa Issuing Centres and Authorities
Visas are issued by the following:

  • The office of the Director of Immigration Services, Dar es Salaam, and the Office of the Assistant Director of Immigration Services Zanzibar.
  • Tanzania Missions abroad
  • Entry points to the United Republic of Tanzania, i.e. Namanga, Tunduma, Sirari, Horohoro, Kigoma Port, Julius.K. Nyerere International Airport (JKNIA), Kilimanjaro International Airport, Zanzibar Harbour and Zanzibar International Airport (ZIA) and other gazetted entry points.

6. Visa Fee Rates
Visa fee for Holiday and Ordinary visa is US $. 50. Multiple visa 6 months to 1 year is US $ 100, while 3 months multiple visa fee is US $.50.
Business Visa usd 250  and transit visa USD 30, refer

7. Extension of Stay: 
You can extend your visas for three months at a time up to a maximum of six months at the immigration office in Dar es Salaam.

8. Temporary Residence: 
Residence permits are granted to foreign nationals if they are employed by a Tanzanian company, or working long-term as missionaries or volunteers. You must apply for these through the Immigration Services Department. Visa and other related application can be downloaded from


Residence Permits
Residence permits are not issued by Tanzania Missions but rather the Immigration Department.  Application for residence permits must be done and obtained prior to arriving in Tanzania. The requirements are as follows:

Work Permits
Work permits are not issued by Tanzania Missions but rather the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development.  Application of work permits must be done and obtained prior to arriving in Tanzania. The requirements are: Znz Min Labour, youth, women and children dev

Filming License
Filming licenses are required must and permits to import filming equipment must be obtained prior arrival in the country.


Tanzania has a varied geography, including deep and large freshwater and salt lakes, many national parks, and Africa's highest point, Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 m or 19,341 ft)

Northeast Tanzania is mountainous and includes Mount Meru, an active volcano, Mount Kilimanjaro, a dormant volcano, and the Usambara and Pare mountain ranges. Kilimanjaro attracts thousands of tourists each year.

West of those mountains is the Gregory Rift, which is the eastern arm of the Great Rift Valley. On the floor of the rift are a number of large salt lakes, including Natron in the north, Manyara in the south, and Eyasi in the southwest. The rift also encompasses the Crater Highlands, which includes the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the Ngorongoro Crater. Just to the south of Lake Natron is Ol Doinyo Lengai (3,188 m or 10,459 ft), the world’s only active volcano to produce natrocarbonatite lava. To the west of the Crater Highlands lies Serengeti National Park, which is famous for its lions, leopards, elephants, rhinoceroses, and buffalo plus the annual migration of millions of white bearded wildebeest. Just to the southeast of the park is Olduvai Gorge, where many of the oldest hominid fossils and artifacts have been found.

Further northwest is Lake Victoria on the Kenya–Uganda–Tanzania border. This is the largest lake in Africa by surface area and is traditionally named as the source of the Nile River.  Lake Victoria covers 69,490 sq km (26,832 sq miles), which is Africa’s largest lake and 49% of it lies in Tanzania. Southwest of this, separating Tanzania from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is Lake Tanganyika . This lake is estimated to be the deepest lake in Africa and second deepest lake in the world after Lake Baikal in Siberia, with maximum depths of 1,470m (4,821ft), and is 673km (420 miles) long and averages 50km (31 miles) across; 41% of its area lies in Tanzania. The western portion of the country between Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi consists of flat land that has been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as part of the Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands ecoregion. Just upstream from the Kalambo Falls, there is one of the most important archaeological sites in Africa.

The Tanzanian mainland is divided into several clearly defined regions: the coastal plains, which vary in width from 16 to 64km (10 to 39 miles) and have lush, tropical vegetation; the Masai Steppe in the north, 213 to 1,067m (698 to 3,500ft) above sea level.

The centre of Tanzania is a large plateau, which is part of the East African Plateau. The southern half of this plateau is grassland within the Eastern Miombo woodlands ecoregion, the majority of which is covered by the huge Selous National Park. Further north the plateau is arable land and includes the national capital, Dodoma.

The eastern coast contains Tanzania’s largest city and former capital, Dar es Salaam. Just north of this city lies the Zanzibar Archipelago, a semi-autonomous territory of Tanzania which is famous for its spices.

The coast is home to areas of East African mangroves, mangrove swamps that are an important habitat for wildlife on land and in the water.


It is believed that modern humans originate from the rift valley region of East Africa, and as well as fossilized hominid remains, archaeologists have uncovered Africa's oldest human settlement in Tanzania.

Early History
In 1959, Dr. L. S. B. Leakey, a British anthropologist, discovered at Olduvai Gorge in NE Tanzania the fossilized remains of what he called Homo habilis, who lived about 1.75 million years ago. Tanzania was later the site of Paleolithic cultures. By the beginning of the first millennium A.D. scattered parts of the country, including the coast, were thinly populated. At this time overseas trade seems to have been carried out between the coast and NE Africa, SW Asia, and India.

By about A.D. 900 traders from SW Asia and India had settled on the coast, exchanging cloth, beads, and metal goods for ivory. They also exported small numbers of Africans as slaves. By this time there were also commercial contacts with China, directly and via Sri Vijaya (see under Indonesia) and India. By about 1200, Kilwa Kisiwani (situated on an island) was a major trade center, handling gold exported from Sofala (on the coast of modern Mozambique) as well as goods (including ivory, beeswax, and animal skins) from the near interior of Tanzania. By about 1000 the migration of Bantu-speakers into the interior of Tanzania from the west and the south was well under way, and the population there had been greatly increased. The Bantu were organized in relatively small political units.

Foreign Contacts
In 1498, Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese explorer, became the first European to visit the Tanzanian coast; in 1502, on his second visit there, he made Kilwa tributary. In 1505, Kilwa was sacked by Francisco d’Almeida, another Portuguese explorer, and by 1506 Portugal controlled most of the coast of E Africa. The Portuguese did not cooperate with the local people, and their impact was mostly negative—trade was disrupted, towns declined, and people migrated from the region. However, Kilwa’s trade seems to have grown as a result of contact with the Portuguese. Toward the end of the 16th cent., the Zimba, a group from SE Africa, moved rapidly up the coast, causing considerable damage; in 1587 they sacked Kilwa and killed about 3,000 persons (roughly 40% of its inhabitants).

In 1698 the Portuguese were expelled from the E African coast (except for a brief return in 1725) with the help of Arabs from Oman. In the early 18th cent., the Omanis showed some interest in the commerce of E Africa, and this increased after the Bu Said dynasty replaced the Yarubi rulers in 1741. Oman’s commercial activity was centered on Zanzibar (and, to a lesser extent, at Mombasa), from which it controlled the overseas trade of E Africa. By the early 19th cent. numerous towns on the Tanzanian coast had been founded or revived; these included Tanga, Pangani, Bagamoyo, Kilwa Kivinje (situated on the mainland near Kilwa Kisiwani), Lindi, and Mikandani.

The Caravan Trade
Sayyid Said, the great Bu Saidi ruler, took a great interest in E Africa and in 1841 permanently moved his capital from Muscat, in Oman, to Zanzibar. He brought with him many Arabs, who settled in the mainland towns as well as on Zanzibar. About the same time, new caravan routes into the far interior were opened up; the three main lines went from Kilwa and Lindi to the Lake Nyasa region; from Bagamoyo and Mbwamaji (near present-day Dar-es-Salaam) to Tabora, where one branch continued west to Ujiji (and on into modern Congo) and another went north to the Victoria Nyanza region; and from Pangani and Tanga northwest into modern Kenya via Mt. Kilimanjaro.

The caravans following the southern route obtained mainly slaves and ivory; along the more northerly routes ivory was the chief commodity purchased. As a result, the Swahili language (a blend of Bantu grammar and a considerable Arabic vocabulary) and culture gained new adherents. In the middle third of the 19th cent. several European missionaries and explorers visited various parts of Tanzania, notably Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tabora, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa. From the 1860s to the early 1880s Mirambo, a Nyamwezi, headed a large state that controlled much of the caravan trade of central and N Tanzania. About the same time Tippu Tib, a Zanzibari, organized large caravans that passed through Tanzania to present-day Zambia and Congo, where ivory and slaves were obtained.

As the scramble for African territory among the European powers intensified in the 1880s, Carl Peters and other members of the Society for German Colonization signed treaties with Africans (1884–85) in the hinterland of the Tanzanian coast. By an agreement with Great Britain in 1886, Germany established a vague sphere of influence over mainland Tanzania, except for a narrow strip of land along the coast that remained under the suzerainty of the sultan of Zanzibar, who leased it to the Germans. The German East Africa Company (founded 1887) governed the territory, called German East Africa. The company’s aggressive conduct resulted in a major resistance movement along the coast by Arabs, Swahili (whose main leaders were Abushiri and Bwana Heri), and other Africans that was only defeated with the help of the German government. A second Anglo-German agreement (1890) added Rwanda, Burundi, and other regions to German East Africa.

Because the company had proved to be an ineffective ruler, the German government in 1891 took over the country (which by then included the coast) and declared it a protectorate. However, it was not until 1898, with the death of the Hehe ruler, Mkwawa, who strongly opposed European rule, that the Germans succeeded in controlling the country. During the period 1905 to 1907 the Maji Maji revolt against German rule engulfed most of SE Tanzania; about 75,000 Africans lost their lives as a result of German military campaigns and lack of food. Under the Germans, several new crops (including sisal, cotton, and plantation-grown rubber) were introduced; the production and sale of other commodities (notably coffee, copra, sesame, and peanuts) was encouraged, and railroads were built to Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika and to Moshi. In addition, many new Christian missions, which included rudimentary schools for the Africans, were established.

During World War I, British and Belgian troops occupied (1916) most of German East Africa. In the postwar period the League of Nations made Tanganyika a British mandate, and Ruanda-Urundi (later Rwanda and Burundi), a Belgian mandate; the Portuguese gained control of some land in the southeast. The British, especially during the administration (1925–31) of Gov. Sir Donald Cameron, attempted to rule “indirectly” through existing African leaders. However, unlike N Nigeria, where the policy of indirect rule was first developed (see Frederick Lugard), Tanganyika had few indigenous large-scale political units. Therefore, African leaders had to be established in newly defined constituencies. The effect of British policy, as a result, was to alter considerably the patterns of African life in Tanganyika. After a slow start, the British developed the territory’s economy largely along the lines established by the Germans. Increasing numbers of Africans worked for a wage on plantations, especially after 1945, when economic growth began to accelerate. Also after 1945 Africans gradually gained more seats on the territory’s legislative council (which had been established in 1926).

Independence and Nyerere
In 1954, Julius Nyerere and Oscar Kambona transformed the Tanganyika African Association (founded in 1929) into the more politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). TANU easily won the general elections of 1958–60, and when Tanganyika became independent on Dec. 9, 1961, Nyerere became its first prime minister. In Dec., 1962, Tanganyika became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, and Nyerere was made president. On Apr. 26, 1964, shortly after a leftist revolution in newly independent Zanzibar, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged; Nyerere became the new country’s first president. Abeid Amani Karume, the head of Zanzibar’s government and leader of its dominant Afro-Shirazi party (ASP), became Tanzania’s first vice president. Although formally united with the mainland, Zanzibar retained considerable independence in internal affairs.

In Feb., 1967, Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, a major policy statement that called for egalitarianism, socialism, and self-reliance. It promised a decentralized government and a program of rural development called ujamaa (“pulling together”) that involved the creation of cooperative farm villages. Factories and plantations were nationalized, and major investments were made in primary schools and health care. While Nyerere put some of the declaration’s principles into practice, it was not clear if power in Tanzania was, in fact, being decentralized.

TANU was the mainland’s sole legal political party and it was tightly controlled by Nyerere. In the early 1970s there was tension (and occasional border clashes) between Tanzania and Uganda, caused mainly by Nyerere’s continued support of Uganda’s ousted president, A. Milton Obote. However, in 1973, Nyerere and Gen. Idi Amin, Uganda’s new head of state, signed an agreement to end hostilities. Tanzania supported various movements against white-minority rule in S Africa, and several of these organizations had offices in Dar-es-Salaam. In 1977, TANU and Zanzibar’s ASP merged to form the Party of the Revolution (CCM). A new constitution was adopted the same year.

Hostilities with Uganda resumed in 1978 when Ugandan military forces occupied about 700 sq mi (1800 sq km) of N Tanzania and left only after having caused substantial damage. One month later, Tanzanian forces and Ugandan rebels staged a counterinvasion. Tanzania captured the Ugandan capital of Kampala in 1979 and drove Idi Amin from power. This campaign further depleted the country’s already scarce economic resources. Tanzania maintained troops in Uganda after its victory and drew criticism from other African nations for its actions. In 1983, negotiations between Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda led to the reopening of the Kenyan border, which had been closed since 1977 after the collapse of the East African Community.

Tanzania after Nyerere
By the 1980s, it was clear that the economic policies set out by the Arusha Declaration had failed. The economy continued to deteriorate with cycles of alternating floods and droughts, which reduced agricultural production and exports. After Nyerere resigned as promised in 1985, Ali Hassan Mwinyi, president of Zanzibar, became head of the one-party government. He began an economic recovery program involving cuts in government spending, decontrol of prices, and encouragement of foreign investment; modest growth resumed. In 1992 the constitution was amended to allow opposition parties.

The 1995 multiparty elections, which were regarded by international observers as seriously flawed, were won by Benjamin William Mkapa, candidate of the ruling CCM. In the 1990s Tanzania was overwhelmed by refugees from the war in neighboring Burundi; by the end of the decade some 300,000 were in Tanzania, and the number subsequently grew. Tanzania began repatriating the refugees in 2002, and closed the last camp in 2009. More than 200,000 Burundian refugees who fled to Tanzania in 1972 also remained prior to 2009; many of these accepted an offer of Tanzania citizenship.

Mkapa, who continued to pursue economic reforms, was reelected in 2000, but there were blatant irregularities in the vote in Zanzibar, where the opposition party, which favors greater independence for the island, had been expected to do well. In 2005 the CCM candidate for president, Jakaya Kikwete won the election with 80% of the vote, and the CCM won more than 90% of the seats in parliament, but the voting in Zanzibar was again marred by violence and irregularities. A corruption investigation implicated the prime minister, Edward Lowassa, and two other cabinet members in 2008, leading them to resign in February; Kikwete subsequently re-formed the cabinet. The president was reelected in 2010 with more than 60% of the vote, while on Zanzibar the election was largely peaceful and the CCM candidate narrowly won the island’s presidency. The CCM also won three quarters of the seats in parliament.


The evocative mix of people and cultures in Tanzania creates a tapestry of memories for the visitor.

Tanzanian Girl
Tanzanian Girl

Since the dawn of mankind, when the savannahs of east and southern Africa saw the birth of humanity, Tanzania has been home to countless peoples of many different origins. Tanzania’s history has been influenced by a procession of peoples, from the original Bantu settlers from south and west Africa to the Arabs from Shiraz in Persia and the Oman; from the Portuguese to the Germans and the British. Tanzanians took control of their own destiny with independence in 1961.

It has a population of over 26 million with 120 African ethnic groups, none of which represent more than 10 per cent of the population. The Sukuma others including the Nyamwezi, the Makonde and the Chaga of the Kilimanjaro region., the largest group, live in the north-western part of the country, south of Lake Victoria. They are fairly commercial oriented and have prospered with a mix of cotton farming and cattle herding.

Unlike in other African countries, most people identify themselves as Tanzanian first and foremost. This reflects the ideals which were introduced by the leader of the nation for over twenty years, Julius Nyerere

The Hadzabe of northern Tanzania have built a society based on hunting and gathering food, while the Iraqw live in the central highlands of Mbulu and are known for their statuesque, immobile posture and sharply delineated features. They grow their own food and tend cattle.

The Masaai, who are perhaps the most well known of East Africa’s ethnic groups, are pastoralists whose livelihood and culture is based on the rearing of cattle, which are used to determine social status and wealth.

They dominate northern Tanzania but only occupy a fraction of their former grazing grounds in the north, much of which they now share with national parks and other protected areas. They are easily recognised by their single red or blue garments and their ochre covered bodies.

North of the Masaai steppe, on the slopes of Kilimanjaro, live the Chagga, who farm the mountain side. Through cooperative farming they have achieved a fair standard of living.

The Gogo live near Dodoma and have developed slowly due to lack of water. The formerly warlike Hehe live in Iringa District’s highland grasses.

The Makonde are internationally famous for their intricate wood (ebony) carvings (sold over much of East Africa). They live along the coast on the Makonde plateau and their relative isolation has resulted in a high degree of ethnic self-awareness.

The Nyamwezi, whose name translates into “People of the Moon”, were probably so called because of their location in the west. The Nyamwezi, now cultivators, were once great traders. The 19th century European explorers regarded them the most powerful group in the interior.

The Haya, located along the shores of Lake Victoria, to the north-west of the Nyamwezi, grew and traded coffee long before the arrival of the Europeans and today have established tea and coffee processing plants. Haya women produce excellent handicrafts.

In an area of forest and bush live the Ha who retain a deep belief in the mystical. They live in relative solitude with their long-horned cattle and wearing hides or fibres of bark. They are well known for their artistic expression, especially their dances and celebrations.

Tanzanians will tell you that the reason for the relative harmony between the various ethnic groups is that virtually everyone speaks Swahili in addition to their native tongue.

Today, a great majority of the population have accepted and fluently use Kiswahili, thus English is generally well known.  As a result of this linguistic situation, many of the 120 tribal languages are slowly withering away with every new generation.  Kiswahili on the other hand has grown into an international language that is widely used across multiple boarders.

Kiswahili is ranked among the top 10 international languages. Apart from Tanzania, it is now used in Kenya, Uganda, DRC Congo, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to name a few.


Tanzania has a tropical climate but has regional variations due to topography. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively.

The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F).

Seasonal rainfall is driven mainly by the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. It migrates southwards through Tanzania in October to December, reaching the south of the country in January and February, and returning northwards in March, April, and May. This causes the north and east of Tanzania to experience two distinct wet periods – the short rains (or “Vuli”) in October to December and the long rains (or “Masika”) from March to May – while the southern, western, and central parts of the country experience one wet season that continues October through to April or May.

The onset of the long rains averages 25 March and the cessation averages 21 May. A warmer-than-normal South Atlantic Ocean coupled with a cooler-than-normal Eastern Indian Ocean often causes the onset to be delayed.

Of the land area, 84.1% has a tropical wet and dry/ savanna climate (Aw), 6.9% has a semi-arid/ steppe climate (BS), 9% has a temperate/ mesothermal climate with dry winters (Cw).

Of the population, 80.5% live in a tropical wet and dry/ savanna climate (Aw), 9.5% live in a semi-arid/ steppe climate (BS), 10% live in a temperate/ mesothermal climate with dry winters (Cw)




Alt. m(ft)



Av. Temp.





1137 (3730)


Subtropical moist forest


2144 (84)




1147 (3763)




893 (35)




1140 (3740)




1119 (44)




1387 (4551)


Subtropical moist forest


873 (34)




831 (2726)


Subtropical moist forest


906 (36)




872 (2861)


Subtropical moist forest


603 (24)




35 (115)




1327 (52)




1190 (3904)


Subtropical dry forest

23 (73)

1010 (40)




1120 (3675)


Subtropical thorn woodland


556 (22)




15 (49)



26 (78)

1684 (66)

Dar Es Salaam



55 (180)


Tropical dry forest

26 (79)

1148 (45)




1707 (5600)


Subtropical dry forest


944 (37)




113 (371)


Tropical dry forest


1145 (45)




1067 (3501)


Subtropical dry forest

21 (70)

1150 (45)

 Tanzania Average



844 (2769)


Subtropical moist forest

24 (75)

1107 (44)

Flying to Tanzania

There are frequent direct and indirect flights to Tanzania by numerous international airlines.

International airlines that fly to Dar es Salaam include KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Swiss International Airlines, Emirates,Qatar Airways, Oman Air,Turkish Airlines,South African Airways, Ethiopian Airlines, Egypt Airways, Kenya Airways, Air Uganda, LAM Mozambique Airlines and Rwanda Air.

Departure tax:
The international departure tax is US$50 but this is included in the price of an airline ticket.

Travel by Rail and Boat

Travel by rail
There are two railway lines. Tanzania - Zambia Railway which is run by the Tanzania and Zambia Railway Authority (Tazara) (tel: (022) 286 2033; and the Central line - Tanzania Railway line owned by Tanzania Railway corporation.

By rail note:
Tanzania - Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), its train journey from Dar es Salaam to Kapirimposhi -  Zambia is very long (around 50 hours) and there are frequent delays. Always travel in First Class in a two or four sleeper compartment. When the train crosses the border between the two countries, immigration officials board the train to complete border formalities. The central line between Kigoma and Dar es Salaam carries international freight and passengers in transit from Burundi, DR Congo and Rwanda to the Indian Ocean, and the branch from Tabora to Mwanza carries freight and passengers between Uganda and the Indian Ocean.train from Dar es salaam to Kigoma, Mpanda and Mwanza

Getting to Tanzania by boat
The main port is Dar es Salaam ( which is served by commercial ships but no passenger services from other countries. It does however serve as the departure point for ferry services to Zanzibar.

Cruise ships:
Some cruise ships dock at Zanzibar.

Ferry operators:
Passenger ferry services run on Lake Tanganyika to Mpulungu (Zambia). They also used to run to Bujumbura (Burundi), and this service is likely to start up again in the future. There is sporadic and unreliable ferry service on Lake Nyasa linking Tanzania with Malawi.

Driving to Tanzania

The main international road crossings into Tanzania are from Kenya. The most used is the border crossing at Namanga, about halfway between Nairobi and Arusha. The other principle border crossing is south of Mombasa on the coast at Lunga Lunga, from where the nearest large Tanzanian town is Tanga. There are quieter border crossings at Taveta, between Voi and Moshi, and Isebania on the main road between Kisumu and Mwanza.

Border crossings from other neighbouring countries include the Songwe border with Malawi and the Tunduma border with Zambia, both of which are in the southwestern corner of Tanzania and are reached by a good (but long) road from Dar es Salaam. There is a crossing with Uganda at Mutukulu, northwest of Bukoba, but this is a rough road and a remote region to get to. The easiest way to get to Uganda from Tanzania is via Nairobi in Kenya, from where there are daily bus services to Kampala. There is a border crossing with Rwanda at Rusomo, although again this is in the remote northwestern part of Tanzania although there are bus services between Mwanza and Kigali. Tanzania does share a border with Mozambique to the south, but road access between the two countries is very limited.

By road note:
There are many local bus companies that ply the main routes over the borders. Several companies run comfortable shuttle bus services between Nairobi and Arusha and Moshi in Tanzania. These are aimed at tourists who fly into Nairobi and are visiting the game parks in Tanzania’s northern circuit region from Arusha, or are climbing Mt Kilimanjaro from Moshi. The buses take about 5-6 hours in either direction, and drivers assist passengers with border procedures. Riverside Shuttles ( offer a reliable daily service.

For long-distance cross-border bus travel, recommended for visitors is Taqwa Bus Services (+255 655 721287, +255 655 141034, +255 715 423820), which has frequent departures to and from Tanzania and neighbouring countries. They also offer daily services between Nairobi and Kampala in Uganda, and from Dar es Salaam to Lusaka in Zambia.


Tanzania has a tropical climate and different bacteria, flora and fauna than most visitors are accustomed to , so it is advisable to take a few health precautions when travelling to make sure your trip goes as comfortably and smooth as possible. Malaria is usually top on the list of visitors' worries, and prevention goes a long way towards keeping you protected. Make sure to visit your doctor to get a prescription for the anti-malarial drug the best suit you. The yellow-fever vaccination is no longer official required when entering Tanzania; however this is still a requirement if you wish to visit Zanzibar. Other vaccination should be considered.

The best choice of vaccines for your trip depends on many individual factors, including your precise travel plans. Vaccines commonly recommended for travellers to Africa include those against Health Effects Such as Tetanus, Diphtheria, Polio, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Yellow fever, Rabies and Meningitis.

Certificate required for entry into, or travel between, some African countries. Several of these vaccines require more than one dose, or take time to become effective. It is always best to seek advice on immunisation well in advance, if possible around 6 weeks before departure.

What to pack
It is advisable to travel with a small medical kit that includes any basic remedies you may need, such as antacids, painkillers, anti-histamines and cold remedies. You will also need anti-diarrhoeal medication such as Imodium (adults only); and oral rehydration sachets such as Electrolade, especially if travelling with children. Also include first aid items such as Band-Aids, antiseptic and dressings. It may be worth asking your doctor to prescribe a broad spectrum antibiotic, suitable for treating dysentery or severe infections.

Take along scissors, tweezers, and thermometer, lip salve, sun block, water purification tablets or drops, as well as your preferred brands of toiletries and cosmetics. If you wear spectacles or contact lenses, take spares. Also take a torch and a pocket knife.

Food & Hygiene
If you eat every meal you are offered, anywhere in the tropics, you will undoubtedly become ill. Be selective. Possible disease hazards range from minor bouts of travellers’ diarrhea to dysentery and more serious parasitic diseases that may ruin your trip, so precautions are worthwhile. Always choose food that has been freshly and thoroughly cooked, and is served hot.

Avoid buffet food, or anything that has been re-heated or left exposed to flies. Avoid seafood. Raw fruit and vegetables tend to be very difficult to sterilise: don’t eat them unless they have been carefully and thoroughly washed in clean water, or are easy to cut open or peel without contaminating the flesh. In the tropics, the easiest and safest fruits are bananas and papayas.

Do not be afraid to reject food you consider unsafe, to ask for something to be prepared specially, or to skip a meal.

Water Purification
Only drink water that you know is safe. Don’t drink tap water or brush your teeth with it, stick to bottled or canned drinks – well known brands are safe. Have bottled mineral waters opened in your presence, and regard all ice as unsafe. Alcohol does not sterilise a drink!

If in doubt, purify water by boiling or with chlorine or iodine, or using a water purifier. (One of the safest methods is to use 2 percent tincture of iodine: add 1 drop of iodine to each cup of water, and wait 20 minutes before drinking.)

Accidents and Injuries
Accidents and injuries kill many more travellers than exotic infectious diseases: be constantly alert! Risks arise not just from the accidents themselves but also from the scarcity of skilled medical care. Don’t drive on unfamiliar, unlit roads at night. Don’t ride a moped, motorcycle or bicycle. Don’t drink and drive, and don’t drive too fast. Insist that taxi-drivers drive carefully when you are a passenger. Use seat belts, and for children, take your own child seats. Take special care at swimming pools: never drink and swim, and always check the depth. Carry a small first aid / medical kit. Minor wounds may easily become infected: look after them carefully and seek prompt attention if necessary.

Tropical Diseases
Malaria:Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes that bite mainly at dusk and at night: every traveller to Africa needs reliable, up to date advice on the risks at his or her own destination. Prevention consists of using effective protection against bites (see below), plus taking anti-malarial medication. The most suitable choice of medication depends on many individual factors, and travellers need careful, professional advice about the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The most effective preventive drugs for travel to Africa are:

Lariam: widely-used; side-effects have received much media attention (ranging from vivid dreams to more serious neurological reactions); those who should not take this drug include travellers with a previous history of neurological and psychological problems.

Doxycycline: possible side-effects include a skin reaction that can be triggered by bright sunlight, as well as an increased risk in women of vaginal thrush.
Malarone: highly effective, well-tolerated, and with an extremely low rate of side-effects, but more expensive and currently only available on an unlicensed basis from specialist centres. Chloroquine and Paludrine have little risk of side effects and were previously widely used, but are now only about 50-60 per cent effective in many parts of East, West, and Central Africa, and must be used with caution, if at all. Commercial import to Tanzania has even been stopped.

Whatever your choice, you must take an anti malarial drug if you are visiting a malarial region, and you must continue taking the drug for the necessary period after your return; you must also take precautions to reduce the number of insect bites (see below).

Visitors to malarial areas are at much greater risk than local people and long term expatriates – from malaria as from several other diseases: do not change or discontinue your malaria medication other than on skilled professional advice. Travellers to very remote places should also consider taking stand-by malaria treatment, for use in an emergency.

Other Tropical Diseases Tropical diseases are relatively uncommon in travellers. Most of them tend to be food-borne or insect-borne, so the precautions listed above will prevent the majority of cases.

Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharzia, is a parasitic disease spread by contact with water from lakes, rivers and streams. Regardless of any advice you may receive to the contrary by local people, and even tour guides, no lake, river, or stream in Africa is free of risk. Contact should be avoided or kept to a minimum. Chlorinated swimming pools are safe.

Rabies: In Africa, dogs are not pets: avoid handling any animal. Rabies is transmitted by bites, but also by licks and scratches: wounds need thorough scrubbing and cleansing with antiseptic, followed by prompt, skilled medical attention including immunisation. Seek advice about pre-travel rabies immunisation, especially if your trip will be a long one.

Coming Home
Most cases of traveller malaria occur when travellers stop taking antimalaria drugs as soon as they get home. This is dangerous – tablets should be continued as instructed (at least 4 weeks after leaving a malarial area, except for Malarone, which can be stopped after 1 week).

Symptoms of malaria – and other tropical diseases – may not appear until long after your return home – you may not necessarily associate them with your trip. Always report any symptoms to your doctor, and make sure that he or she knows that you have been to Africa, even up to 12 months after your visit. DEMAND a blood test for malaria. If you have been exposed to schistosomiasis, a blood test at least six weeks after returning home should be considered.

No responsibility can be accepted by AMREF or contributors for actions taken as a result of information contained here. Everyone is advised to seek proper medical advice where necessary before, during and after travel.

The Flying Doctor Service
In many parts of Africa access to adequate health care can mean long, tortuous journeys by road. The Flying Doctor Service operated by AMREF not only provides outreach and emergency care to local communities in remote regions, it also provides a medical air evacuation service to tourists. By joining the Flying Doctors’ Society you can help the service reach the people who need it most and also ensure a free emergency evacuation flight for yourself should the worst happen on your travels. Visit the Flying Doctors page to find out more, and to become a member of the society, click here.
Read More About health Tips Here

© Copyright Amref – Flying Doctors

Tanzania Airport List

The mainland (excluding Zanzibar) has 26 airports. The Tanzania Airports Authority (TAA) operates all the airports except for Kilimanjaro International, which is managed by the state owned Kilimanjaro Airport Development Company (KADCO).

Tanzania Mainland





Airport name

Runway (m)



Arusha Region



Arusha Airport




Kagera Region



Bukoba Airport



Dar es Salaam

Dar es Salaam Region



Julius Nyerere International Airport




Dodoma Region



Dodoma Airport



Hai District

Kilimanjaro Region



Kilimanjaro International Airport




Shinyanga Region



Shinyanga Airport



Kilwa Masoko

Lindi Region



Kilwa Masoko Airport



Lake Manyara

Arusha Region



Lake Manyara Airport




Lindi Region



Lindi Airport



Mafia Island

Pwani Region



Mafia Airport




Mtwara Region



Masasi Airport




Mbeya Region



Mbeya Airport




Mbeya Region



Songwe Airport




Kilimanjaro Region



Moshi Airport




Katavi Region



Mpanda Airport




Mtwara Region



Mtwara Airport




Mara Region



Musoma Airport




Mwanza Region



Mwanza Airport




Lindi Region



Nachingwea Airport




Iringa Region



Iringa Airport




Kagera Region



Ngara Airport




Ruvuma Region



Songea Airport




Rukwa Region



Sumbawanga Airport




Tabora Region



Tabora Airport




Tanga Region



Tanga Airport




Kigoma Region



Kigoma Airport




Airports in the Zanzibar Archipelago are under the jurisdiction of the Zanzibar Airports Authority.





Airport name

Runway (m)

Pemba Island

South Pemba Region



Pemba Airport


Unguja Island

Zanzibar Central/South Region



Abeid Amani Karume International Airport







Airstrip name

Runway (m)

Operated by


Arusha Region



Loliondo Airstrip



Mikumi National Park

Morogoro Region



Kikoboga Airstrip




Tanga Region



Mombo Airstrip




Morogoro Region



Morogoro Airstrip



Kilimanjaro National Park

Kilimanjaro Region



West Kilimanjaro Airstrip



Ruaha National Park

Iringa Region



Msembe Airstrip



Rubondo Island National Park

Mwanza Region


Rubondo Airstrip




Kilimanjaro Region



Same Airstrip



Selous Game Reserve

Pwani Region



Mtemere Airstrip




Mara Region



Seronera Airstrip




Singida Region



Singida Airstrip



Songo Songo Island

Lindi Region



Songo Songo Airstrip



Military airbases

  • Mwanza Air Force Base, Mwanza
  • Ngerengere Air Force Base, Morogoro Region
  • Ukonga Air Force Base, Dar es Salaam

Proposed airports

  • Msalato International Airport, Dodoma (capital)
  • Kajunguti International Airport, Kagera Region
  • Serengeti International Airport, Mugumu

Regulations and Park Fees

PARK FEES FOR 2013-2015
- TANAPA tariffs valid from July 1st, 2013 to June 30th, 2015
- NOTE: Fees Once Paid Shall Not Be Refunded

Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA) wishes to clarify to the Public on the application of the recently introduced Expatriates Fee which has caused confusion since the start of its operation.
- The fee is applicable to expatriates residing in Tanzania only. Expatriate should be defined as any person holding either of the following:-
- Valid Work permits Class A, B or C
- Exemption certificates
- Temporary pass attached with government receipt and acknowledgement letter.
- Stamped passports will not be accepted.
- Expatriates fees applies only on Conservation Fee (Park entry) and not any other tourism products for which non-residence fees should apply.

- Chimp viewing regulations for Mahale Mountains National Park

- Mountains National Parks Regulations (posted 2011-08-18)

- To listen to the guides and others who are familiar with the conditions here, follow their advice.
- Leave the park undisturbed by no leaving, or removing anything, animate or inanimate.
- If you meet problems, turn back, and use the same route that you and your party had taken up.
- A pulmonary case ought IMMEDIATELY to be brought down to lower altitudes.
- Follow the official routes/trails only, when you are walking in the forest. It is easy to get lost. Never go alone if it can be helped.
- Litter disfigures nature. Please ensure that everyone in party picks up, brings back, or disposes of it at places provided.
- Do not light, or cause a fire to be lighted. Be particularly careful of live lit cigarette butts.
- Stick to your plan, by doing so you will not inconvenience others in the huts.

- Always avoid a rescue by reading the regulations.
- Get ACCLIMATISED by avoiding rapid ascent from low altitude to above 10,000. By doing so you may avoid MOUNTAIN SICKNESS, and prevent pulmonary oedema.
- Do not go above 13,000’ if you have a cold.
- When a rescue is required in your party, report immediately or send a clearly written note to the Parks Gate.

It is an express condition of your visit to this Park that the Board of Trustees shall not be responsible for any bodily injury to any visitor arising from an cause: or for or damage to the property of any visitor brought into the park arising from fire, theft or otherwise by whomsoever caused or arising from negligent or wrongful act of any person in the employment of the Board. All visitors are deemed to have contracted with the Board on this basis.

- Ngorongoro Conservation Area Rules and Regulations
- Fees and Payments

- Tanzania National Wildlife Policy (1998)

- Tanzania Wildlife Conservation Act (2002)


Accomodation Guide

Tanzania has a vast spread of accommodation options, ranging from luxurious game lodges in game-filled national parks, heritage buildings in the winding alleys of Stone Town, sprawling resorts and rustic beach huts lining Zanzibar’s beaches, and extending down-budget all the way to a plethora of middling mid-range hotels and the cheap, rough-around-the-edges guest houses.

Hotels in Tanzania vary from superbly finished, expensive luxury hotels with all the trimmings found in the cities and popular tourist areas, to mid-range generic hotels favoured by local business people, and cheap board and lodgings in the regional towns, which, although sometimes adequate, have little atmosphere and can have security issues.


For large families or the more budget conscious traveller, self-catering accommodation like apartments may be the way to go while travelling around Tanzania cities and towns


Backpackers and hostels offer low-cost accommodation and are popular with young travellers from around the world. There is usually a central kitchen and bathroom, and a mixture of shared rooms (dormitories) as well as single and double rooms.


Bandas or chalet, is a type of building or house, native to the Tanzania, usually made of wood, with a heavy, gently sloping roof and wide, well-supported leaves set at right angles to the front of the house, these are mainly found in mountain areas and beaches.

Bed & Breakfast

Typically shortened to B&B but also spelled BnB, is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast, but usually does not offer other meals, provided in guest houses and small hotels. Referred to locally as ‘board and lodgings’, these are often offshoots of local bars and provide very cheap accommodation, but offer little more than a bed in a bare room with a door that may or may not lock. At these you will want to ensure rooms are clean, there is water in the bathrooms and special attention to possessions should be paid while staying there. These cannot be booked in advance.


There are public campsites in many of the national parks. Some have standard facilities, including taps, toilets and firewood; others are more basic with just a cleared space to park a vehicle and pitch a tent. Permits for camping in the parks must be paid for along with entry to each park. It is advisable to check the prices and site procedure before arrival. A list of public and private campsites is available from the Tanzania National Parks

Guest Houses

A guest house (also guesthouse) is a kind of lodging, these are largely located in most part of Tanzania towns and villages providing bed and breakfast, guest houses are a type of inexpensive hotel-like lodging.


Homestay is a form of tourism and/or study abroad that allows visitors to rent rooms local families. It is sometimes used by people who wish to improve their language skills and become familiar with the local lifestyle.


Hostels offer low-cost accommodation and are popular with young travellers from around the world. There is usually a central kitchen and bathroom, and a mixture of shared rooms (dormitories) as well as single and double rooms.


There is a variety of hotels available in Tanzania ranging from the luxurious hotels to the mid-range lodges plus beach resorts that offer double rooms having air conditioning plus private bathrooms for about US$250 to 150, basic plus small town facilities mainly used by local businessmen go for about US$50 to100 for each room, and standard board plus hotels commonly used by local travelers goes for less than US$10 per day.


There are safari lodges in all national parks and game reserves. Some of these have hundreds of rooms and are aimed at families and tour groups, so while they have decent standards can feel a little impersonal. Others are top-end luxury lodges or tented camps with just a few decadent rooms, boasting impeccable service in stunning locations. Expect to pay exorbitant prices for even the most ‘budget’ lodge, with bookings essential for popular lodges in the Serengeti and Ngorongoro National Parks. Reservations can be made through specialist tour operators as part of a safari trip, or by contacting the lodges directly.


There are dozens of beach resorts on Zanzibar and at a few places on the mainland coast that are aimed at holiday-makers looking for the typical sun, sea and sand experience. Most have been built sensitively, with rooms in low blocks of buildings covered in makuti thatch. These offer B&B, half-board, full-board or ‘all-inclusive’ rates (extras like watersports and children’s activities may be included). Bookings can be made directly through the resort or through the local tour operators. Room rates at beach resorts tend to be seasonal – the high season runs from the beginning of June to mid-October and again from Christmas to mid-February; at these times reservations should be made well in advance.

Tented Camps

Tented Camps can be Budget Camping involves travelling with all your camp equipment, your guide and possibly a cook in your vehicle with you. Fly Camping involves setting up small, temporary camps for a night under the stars, more often than not in a remote part of the bush. Luxury Camping Imagine feather pillows, soft towels, gin and tonic on the rocks and four course gourmet meals in a candlelit dining tent as far from civilisation as you can get. Lightweight Luxury Camping tents will have metal or wood-frame beds, standing headroom, a veranda and small en-suite toilets and hot showers. Most tented camping settings offering you a colonial style safari experience with luxurious tented lodgings - taking you back in time to an era long forgotten. Stay in elegantly appointed luxury en-suite safari tents.


Discover the benefits of renting a private villa over a hotel: personalized ... Villas are luxurious, private residences that are made available to vacation travelers.

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Photography Guide

Tanzania Photography Tips:


1. Be patient, it may sound a little strange but patience is one of those wildlife photography tips that really will improve your wildlife pics. The most interesting animal images are the ones where they exhibit some kind of behaviour other than sleeping or walking around and to capture these type of images, takes time and patience.

2. Be prepared and ready with your camera at all times for those stunning photographs, animals suddenly appear and may only give you a glimpse. A general setting is recommended at f8, servo mode with aperture priority for the sharpest photos.

3. When taking close-up pictures with a tele-photo lens set the aperture at f8 and focus on the animal’s eyes. This guarantees that most of the animals face will be in focus in your photo.

4. When the subject is in motion, use a shutter speed of at least 1/125 for sharper images, except if you are using a panning method. Photographs of birds in flight necessitate speeds of 1/500 or more. A good starting point for wildlife photography is a lens with a 300mm in focal length. Good bird photos will require a 500mm lens.

5. Do not centre all your photos, leave room in your subject for the animal to move into. This will prevent lifeless composition and give an imitate portrayal of your subject in your images. Photographs taken at the animal’s eye-level will appear more sensational.

6. If your prime reason for going on safari is to take photos, do not go on a regular safari. You will find yourself sharing your vehicle with up to 6 guests. So do not expect to stay at any sighting long enough to take any behavioural pics.

7. Use the available light to the best advantage for all those stunning photos. One of the lesser known wildlife photography tips is that the best time for spotting wildlife animals on safari is during the early morning and late evening. Coincidentally that is also when the light is best for photography so take full advantage of this. Midday is problematic because of the harsh direct light and dark bodies against light backgrounds makes for difficult exposure of your animal pictures.

8. Getting the focus right is not as easy as it sounds especially with today’s auto focus cameras. Because there are often branches, grass and vegetation obscuring the subject in safari wildlife photos the camera can easily focus on that instead of the animal. So be careful that your camera isn’t focussing on that clump of grass in front of the subject and spoil that once in a life-time image.

9. Think carefully about the aperture you use for the best pics. By using a large aperture you can throw the background out of focus to isolate the subject on your image.

Source: Tanzania wildlifeSafaris


Tanzania is a safe country to travel in.

Tanzanians are warm - hearted and generous people and are eager to help visitors get the most out of their stay. Hotels are safe and have watchmen. Tanzania is a politically stable, multi-democratic country.However, as in all countries, a little common sense goes a long way and reasonable precautions should still betaken, such as locking valuables in the hotel safe and not walking alone at night.

Vector Maps

  • Tanzania Regional Map

    Tanzania Regional Map

  • Tanzania Wildlife Management Areas

    Tanzania Wildlife Management Areas

  • Tanzania North East

    Tanzania North East

  • Tanzania North West

    Tanzania North West

  • Tanzania Central West

    Tanzania Central West

  • Tanzania Central Mid

    Tanzania Central Mid

  • Tanzania Central East

    Tanzania Central East

  • Tanzania South East

    Tanzania South East

  • Tanzania South Mid

    Tanzania South Mid

  • Tanzania South East

    Tanzania South East

  • Tanzania South South West

    Tanzania South South West

  • Tanzania South South East

    Tanzania South South East

  • Kilimanjaro


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